What is SMT? - First Creation Industry
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What is SMT?

Surface-mount technology (SMT) is a method for producing electronic circuits in which the components are mounted or placed directly onto the surface of printed circuit boards (PCBs). An electronic device so made is called a surface-mount device (SMD). In the industry it has largely replaced the through-hole technology construction method of fitting components with wire leads into holes in the circuit board. Both technologies can be used on the same board, with the through-hole technology used for components not suitable for surface mounting such as large transformers and heat-sinked power semiconductors.

By employing SMT, the production process speeds up, but the risk of defects also increase due to the components miniaturization and denser packing of boards. In those conditions, the failures detection have become critical for any SMT manufacturing process.

An SMT component is usually smaller than its through-hole counterpart because it has either smaller leads or no leads at all. It may have short pins or leads of various styles, flat contacts, a matrix of solder balls (BGAs), or terminations on the body of the component.

(Reference: Wikipedia)

Other SMT information:
What is a SMT machine?
What are the SMT advantages?